Tag Archives: red abalone

qPCR – Ava’s RLO Transmission Samples

Due to a wonky standard curve, I repeated the qPCR from earlier this week.

Standard curve was p18RK7 from 20161128.

All samples were run in duplicate.

Master mix calcs are here (Google Sheet): 20170619_qPCR_WSN1_Ava_Samples

Plate layouts, cycling params, etc. can be seen in the corresponding qPCR Reports (see Results below).

Baseline threshold was manually set to 580, based on Lisa’s development of the withering syndrome qPCR assay.

Results:

qPCR Report (PDF): Sam_2017-06-21 07-39-31_CC009827.pdf
qPCR Data File (CFX96): Sam_2017-06-21 07-39-31_CC009827.pcrd

 

Well, unfortunately, it looks like the curve has gone wonky. This is two consecutive runs with the same behavior. A new curve will have to be made and tested.

 

 

 

 

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qPCR – Ava’s RLO Transmission Samples

Ran qPCRs on samples extracted earlier today. Also re-ran samples 15:08-29 and 15:09-145, per Ava’s request.

Standard curve was p18RK7 from 20161128.

All samples were run in duplicate.

Master mix calcs are here (Google Sheet): 20170619_qPCR_WSN1_Ava_Samples

Plate layouts, cycling params, etc. can be seen in the corresponding qPCR Reports (see Results below).

Baseline threshold was manually set to 580, based on Lisa’s development of the withering syndrome qPCR assay.

Results:

qPCR Report (PDF): Sam_2017-06-19 13-10-22_CC009827.pdf
qPCR Data File (CFX96): Sam_2017-06-19 13-10-22_CC009827.pcrd

 

These will need to be re-run, as the standard curve is a bit wonky (see below). Will re-run later this week.

 

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DNA Extraction – Ava Withering Syndrome Transmission Study Tissues

Isolated DNA from 19 red abalone digestive gland tissue samples.

Tissue was weighed and then DNA extracted.

DNA was extracted using the QIAmp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s protocol with the following options:

  • Samples were briefly homogenized (due to their stiffness resulting from ethanol fixation) in the InhibitEX Buffer using disposable plastic pestles.
  • Homogenized tissue was incubated at 95C to maximize cell lysis
  • Followed “human DNA analysis” protocol for remainder of protocol (to maximize sample recovery)
  • Eluted DNA with 100μL Buffer ATE

Samples were stored at 4C in FSH240 in racks for qPCR later today.

Sample information is in this spreadsheet (Google Sheet): Ava WS Transmission DNA Extractions

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In-situ Hybridization (ISH) – RLOv Membrane Gene 1, Tail Fiber Gene: Day 3

All washes/rinses were performed in cylindrical glass slide incubators at room temp (30mL):

  • Slides were briefly rinsed in dH2O three times.
  • Slides were counter stained with 0.05% aqueous Bismark Brown Y for 3mins.
  • Slides were briefly rinsed in dH2O, then 70% EtOH, then 100% EtOH.
  • Slides were air-dried in the fume hood.
  • Coverslips were added to each slide with three drops of Permount.
  • Permount was allowed to dry O/N at RT.

Images were captured using Nikon BR Essentials.

The same section of each slide (within an accession number set) was captured at 4x, 10x, and 20x magnifications for comparisons. Auto white balance adjustment was the only image manipulation performed. All images (see Results below) are as they were captured by the software.

Results:

Quick summary: Both probes appear to be functional! With that being the case, I will proceed to run ISH on black abalone samples (these test ISHs were with red abalone) for the proper assessment of RLOv localization.

All images are here (Dropbox): 20151204_ISH_RLOv

Tryptic images of 10x magnifications are presented below showing the H&E staining, negative control and RLOv probe.

ISH staining is expected to appear as dark brown staining.


08:1-7 (RLOv)

H&E – RLO inclusions are seen as the deep purple oblong structures.

Negative Control – RLO inclusions exhibit no staining and appear as oblong empty regions. These regions also no have any apparent cell wall/membrane around them. This is in contrast to the two other accession groups (08:1-12 & 08:1-15).

RLOv tail fiber – Staining is noticeable surrounding the RLO inclusion locations, but not within the inclusions. The staining is similar to the 08:1-12 negative control. So, it’s difficult to say if the staining in this sample is binding to its intended target (RLOv tail fiber) or if the difference seen is simply due to the particular section of this tissue.

RLOv membrane gene 1 – Not shown due to this region of tissue not being present on the slide.

 


 

08:1-12 (RLO CLASSIC)

H&E – RLO inclusions are seen as the deep purple oblong structures.

Negative Control – RLO inclusions appear similar to air bubbles, with no staining within them.

RLOv probes – Both probes stain within the RLO inclusions.


 

08:1-15 (RLO STIPPLED)

H&E – RLO inclusions are seen as light purple bulbous structures.

Negative Control – RLO inclusions are actually stained brown and are very noticeable. This is not expected.

RLOv membrane gene 1 - The staining is in the same locations as the negative control RLO inclusions. Intensity-wise, the staining seen from this probe is not much different than the negative control. However, the way the staining appears within the inclusions is different than the negative control. Not sure if this indicative of the probe working or if the different appearance is due to difference in tissue sections.

RLOv tail fiber – The staining is in the same locations as the negative control RLO inclusions. However, the intensity of the staining with the RLOv tail fiber probe is a much deeper brown, suggesting that the probe is binding within the RLO inclusions.

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In-situ Hybridization (ISH) – RLOv Membrane Gene 1, Tail Fiber Gene: Day 2

All washes/rinses were performed in cyclindrical glass slide incubators (30mL):

STRINGENCY WASHES

  • All SSC washes were pre-heated to appropriate temps before proceeding
  • Hybridization solution was discarded and slides rinsed for ~30mins in 2x SSC.
  • Cover slips were removed.
  • Slides were washed twice in 2x SSC 15mins @ 40C.
  • Slides were washed three times in 1x SSC 15mins @ 40C.
  • Slides were washed once in 0.5x SSC 15mins @ 40C.
  • Tissue was equilibrated in Buffer 1 (100mM Tris-HCl, 10mM NaCl, pH = 7.5) 10mins @ RT.
  • Tissues were blocked with Blocking Buffer (Buffer 1 + 2% sheep serum + 0.3% Triton-X 100) for 1hr @ RT (500uL on each slide w/cover slips – sitting flat on bench top).

DETECTION

  • Antibody solution (Anti-Digoxigenin-AP Fab fragments [Roche - Exp Nov. 2010]) – Diluted anti-DIG 1:1000 in Blocking Buffer. Anti-DIG is stored @ 4C in FSH 240 on Lisa’s shelf.
  • Added 1mL of antibody solution to each slide and incubated without a cover slip for 2hrs @ RT – sitting flat on bench top.
  • Rinsed slides with Buffer 1 for 10mins, two times.
  • Rinsed slides with Buffer 2 (100mM tris-HCl, 100mM NaCl, 50mM MgCl2; pH = 9.5) for 10mins.
  • Incubated slides in substrate solution (30mL Buffer 2 + 135uL NBT [Roch - Exp Feb 2010 - 4-nitro blue tetrazolium] + 75uL BCIP [Roche Exp Nov 2010 - 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate]) O/N @ RT in the dark. Both NBT & BCIP are stored @ -20C in FSH 236 in the “ISH Reagents” box.
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In-situ Hybridization (ISH) – RLOv Membrane Genes 1 & 2, Tail Fiber Gene: Day 1

To test out the viability of these RLOv ISH probes (from 20151109) and not waste black abalone slides if this doesn’t work, I selected three unstained red abalone post-esophagus sections:

RLO – NO PHAGE

  • 08:1-12-2
  • 08:1-12-3
  • 08:1-12-4

RLOv

  • 08:1-7-7
  • 08:1-7-8
  • 08:1-7-9

RLO STIPPLED – NO PHAGE

  • 08:1-15-7
  • 08:1-15-8
  • 08:1-15-9

All slides were processed in a single, horizontal glass slide incubator (200mL), unless otherwise noted.

All steps were conducted at room temperature (RT), unless otherwise noted.

DEPARAFFINIZATION & REHYDRATION

  • All slides were deparaffinized with three changes of xylene (SafeClear II; Fisher) for 10mins each.
  • Slides were hydrated with a graded ethanol series (100%, 100%, 80%, 70%, 50%) for 3mins each.
  • Slides were rinsed with molecular grade H2O.

PREHYBRIDIZATION

  • Tissue sections were equilibrated in Tris Buffer (0.2M Tris-HCl, 2.0mM CaCl, pH = 7.2) for 5mins.
  • Tissues were permeabilized for 1.5hrs in preheated 50ug/mL Proteinase K (Qiagen) in Tris Buffer @ 56C.
  • Slides were rinsed with 1x PBS three times, 10mins each.
  • Slides were incubated 30mins in 30mL Prehybridization Buffer (50% deionized formamide, 4x SSC) @ 53C in a cylindrical glass slide incubator due to limited volume of deionized formamide available:

  • Prepared probes by boiling 3mins and immediately incubating in ice water bath for 30mins.
  • Slides were rinsed with 2x SSC and air dried for 5mins.
  • Probes were diluted 1:300 in 1000uL of Prehybridization Buffer. All three negative control probes (indicated by “-C” in subsequent labeling) were combined into a single dilution.

NOTE: RLOv Membrane Gene 2 probe was ruined because boiling water got into the tube during denaturation. This didn’t happen to any of the other tubes that were all boiled at the same time. Not sure what happened. However, this may have worked out OK because I did not pull enough slides to accomodate the negative control probes. So, now that I’m not able to test three probes, I can use the negative control probes!

HYRBIDIZATION

  • 300uL of probe solutions and cover slip were added to the following slides:

  • The three groups of slides were placed into separate slide cases and a 1mL of Prehybridization Buffer was added to each case (to maintain high humidity during incubation).
  • The cases were incubated on their sides O/N @ 53C.
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Abalone Sampling – Post-esophagus & Digestive Gland

Helped Ava sample 162 red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

Accession numbers 15:11-1 through 15:11-162

  • Animals were weighed.
  • Took one post-esophagus sample and one digestive gland sample for histology, placed in histology cassette; three animals per cassette.
  • Took one post-esophagus sample in 95% ethanol for qPCR
  • Shells were labeled and retained for post-sampling weighing/measurements.

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Abalone Sampling – Post-esophagus & Digestive Gland

Helped Ava sample 74 red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

Accession numbers 15:10-1 through 15:10-74

  • Animals were weighed.

  • Took one post-esophagus sample and one digestive gland sample for histology, placed in histology cassette; three animals per cassette.

  • Took one post-esophagus sample in 95% ethanol for qPCR

  • Shells were labeled and retained for post-sampling weighing/measurements.

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PCR – Test Universal Primers with Abalone DNA

Since I’ve had no success in amplifying any of the Ireland Clam RLO (S/6/14 #19) DNA, I’m testing all the universal primer sets I’ve previously tried on the Ireland Clam DNA with red abalone DNA known to have heavy withering syndrome infection (confirmed via histology and qPCR) to verify that these universal primer sets actually work.  I’m also using the withering syndrome primer sets on this DNA to function as a positive control.

Template DNA is: 09:20-08 (from tissue)

Background info for template DNA is here: Red/Pink/Pinto

Primers being used are:

  • 16s/23s-F/R
  • 27F, 1492R
  • EHR16D, EHR16R (universal ehrlichia)
  • EUB-A/B
  • 18s EUK 581 F, 18s EUK 1134 R
  • WSN1 (withering syndrome)

Master mix calcs are here: 20150204 – Ireland Clam Troubleshooting GoTaq Flexi

All samples were run in duplicate.

Cycling params were:
1 cycle of:

  • 95C – 10mins

40 cycles of:

  • 95C – 15s
  • 50C – 15s
  • 72C – 2mins

Ran samples out on a 0.8% agarose,  1x TBE gel w/EtBr

Results:

 

Nothing.  Since there’s nothing, I didn’t bother labelling the gel. So, this suggests that the PCR reactions aren’t working.  Will get newer reagents to replace the 5yr+ old reagents I have been using.  Also will try a different thermal cycler, just to rule out all possibilities.

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